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Learning Objectives

After completing this unit students will be able to:

  • Summarize how the Internet got its start and grew to its current state
  • Identify common protocols and why they are important for the Internet
  • Describe the difference between the Internet and the Web
  • Justify the pros and cons of sending data over different mediums
  • Explain the relationship between clients (such as everyday users on personal machines) and servers

Suggested Reading

Important Vocab

  • ARPANET – the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network, the first network to use TCP/IP
  • Bandwidth – the amount of resources available to transmit data
  • Client –any computer that requests a service
  • Cloud computing – using a remote server to store files
  • Datagrams – Similar to packets, used in unreliable protocols such as UDP
  • DNS – Domain Name System, one of the smaller networks that make up the Internet. It contains many servers that act like phone books
  • Domain Name – a name given or linked to an IP address
  • Fault-Tolerant – a property of IP. If there is an error, it still works properly
  • FTP – File Transfer Protocol, used for transferring files between a client and a server
  • HTML – Hyper Text Markup Language, the standard markup language for creating web pages
  • HTTP – Hyper Text Transfer Protocol, used for websites
  • HTTPS – a secure version of HTTP that uses SSL/TLS
  • IMAP – Internet Message Access Protocol, used for email
  • Internet – a network of smaller networks connected using specific sets of rules that computers use to communicate with each other
  • Internet Protocol Suite –Often referred to as TCP/IP, the four abstract layers in the DoD Model of the Internet
  • IP –Internet protocol, a set of rules for sending packets over the Internet
  • IP Address – a unique identifier for every device on the Internet
  • IPv4 – the version of IP that uses 32-bit addresses
  • IPv6 – the version of IP that uses 128-bit addresses
  • ISP – Internet Service Provider
  • Latency – the amount of delay when sending digital data over the Internet or the round-trip time information takes to get from the client to the server and back
  • MAC (media access control) Address – a unique, physical address that is stored in the computer’s ROM
  • Modem – a device that handles both the modulation and the demodulation of signals
  • Name Server – a server that contains many IP addresses and their matching domain names
  • Network – a group of computers that are connected so they can share resources using a data link
  • Packets – small chunks of data used in TCP/IP
  • POP – Post Office Protocol, used for email
  • Protocol – a specific set of rules
  • Reliable – a protocol that lets the client know if the server received all sent packets
  • Root Name Server – one of thirteen servers that contain every IP address and its matching domain name
  • Router – a networking device that routes Internet traffic to the destination
  • Second-Level Domain – the second highest level in the DNS hierarchy, found directly to the left of the top-level domain in a domain name
  • Server – any computer that provides a service
  • SMTP – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
  • Subdomain – precedes the domain name, owned by the domain https://subdomain.domain.com
  • TCP – Transmission Control Protocol, a set of rules for breaking down requests into smaller, more manageable, numbered packets
  • Top-Level Domain – the highest level in the DNS hierarchy, found to the right of the final period in a domain name
  • UDP – User Datagram Protocol, like TCP and usually used for streaming media
  • URL – Uniform Resource Locator, specifies where to find a file on a domain
  • VoIP – Voice over Internet Protocol, used for telephony
  • Web (World Wide Web) – the part of the Internet that uses HTTP and HTTPS

<– 5 – Protecting Data: Heuristics, Security, and Encryption | 7 – Web Design: HTML and CSS –>